*2 : ill-natured, peevish
"Atrabilious" is a somewhat rare word with a history that parallels that of the more common "melancholy." Representing one of the four bodily humors, from which it was once believed that human emotions originated, "atrabilious" derives from the Latin "atra bilis," literally meaning "black bile." The word "melancholy" derives from the Greek "melan-" and "chole," which also translates as "black bile." In its original sense, "atrabilious" meant "melancholy," but now it is more frequently used to describe someone with an irritable or unfriendly temperament. A word with a meaning similar to that of "atrabilious" is "splenetic," which is named after the organ in the body (the spleen) once thought to secrete black bile.
The goal of "retentive listening" is to remember what is being heard. Retentive listening is most commonly encountered when music students perform ear training or dictation exercises. Unlike many other modes of listening, retentive listening is very much a problem-solving behavior. A composer in the process of improvising might use retentive listening skills to recall a fleeting passage or an appealing juxtaposition of notes.
Aunt Helen would never say that someone had "died"; she preferred to communicate the unpleasant news with euphemisms like "passed on."
Did you know?
"Euphemism" derives from the Greek word "euphēmos," which means "auspicious" or "sounding good." The first part of "euphēmos" is the Greek prefix "eu-," meaning "well." The second part is "phēmē," a Greek word for "speech" that is itself a derivative of the verb "phanai," meaning "to speak." Among the numerous linguistic cousins of "euphemism" on the "eu-" side of the family are "eulogy," "euphoria," and "euthanasia"; on the "phanai" side, its kin include "prophet" and "aphasia" ("loss of the power to understand words").
越發展得成熟的文化，豐富多彩的語言，委婉語必定越多。就是因為種種的原因，不把意思講明白，而要用另一個含蓄的說法。中文的委婉語 ，一說出來，大家必會說：哦！我明白啦！ 例如中國人很怕把「死」字直接講出來，於是有「去世」、「逝世」、「仙遊」、「往生」、「歸西」，廣東話有「去左」、「過身」、「唔係度」等等。
把「盲」說成「失明」；把「聾」說成「失聰」；把「跛」說成「不良於行」； 或近年大陸把「失業」說為「下崗」等等。英文中也有很多的委婉語(Euphemism)，尤其是近年的講究Non-discriminatory(不帶歧視色彩) 的語言，經過傳媒和廣告撰稿人的加鹽加醋，以及注重政治正確(Political Correctness)的公務人員的「潤色」，更是五花八門，例如：
形容聾人，不說Deaf，說Hearing-impaired (聽覺有障礙)；形容窮人，不說Poor，說Disadvantaged (得不到好處)；形容二手貨，不說Second-hand ，說 Pre-loved(曾經有人愛過)；形容性別，不說Sex(男性、女性的「性」)，說 Gender(文法中，名詞的陽性和陰性「性」)；形容貨品便宜，不說Cheap(使購買者「自我感覺不好」)，說 Affordable(易於負擔)等等。
但我覺得有時做得太過份了！請看一個Lame(跛)字，越說越隱晦和累贅，有以下的「發展史」：lame → crippled → handicapped → disabled → differently-abled
A resistance group has sprung up and is plotting to overthrow the tyrant leader and his camarilla.
Did you know?
"Camarilla" is borrowed from Spanish and is the diminutive of "cámara," which traces to the Late Latin "camera" and means "room"; a "camarilla," then, is literally a "small room." Political cliques and plotters are likely to meet in small rooms (generally with the door closed) as they hatch their schemes, and, by 1834, "camarilla" was being used in English for such closed-door groups of scheming advisers. The word is relatively rare in formal English prose, but it still finds occasional use in news stories. Some other descendants of the Latin "camera" include "camera," "comrade, " "camaraderie," and "bicameral."